One way to reduce wastage of energy is to delivery advice to its users on how they can help to save energy and avoid waste.  The Hit2GAP ('H2G') system can provide 'live' energy advice, which takes into account the readings from sensors and meters distributed around the building, thus enabling occupants to make simple changes which will save energy.  For example, if the H2G system finds that a room is heated, cooled, ventilated or lit, but not occupied, then it can advise a facilities' manager (someone who manages energy and other services (such as lifts, etc.,in the building) that energy in that room is being wasted.  

Furthermore it can provide this information by a variety of mechanisms: SMS text messaging, e-mail or an 'energy-reporting dashboard', in a simple or detailed format.  These 'dashboards' can be tailored for specific audiences, for instance a simple dashboard could be displayed in a students' common room to inform of a mobile phone 'app', but a facilities' manager for the same building could be provided with a more detailed dashboard to maximise opportunities to improve performance.  The H2G advice does not only report the reason why energy is being wasted but can also advise on how to rectify a problem: for example, it could advise the building user to switch off the heating in the space where energy is being wasted, or it could advise users to open a window to prevent impending overheating.

In identifying the needs of occupiers, H2G determines where the occupiers are and their level of activity, and evaluates their environment.  If it finds that the lighting, temperature or ventilation are inappropriate for the number of people in each room, then it can flag up a possible 'waste event'.

H2G also looks at the movement of energy around the building, taking account of the heating, ventilation, air conditioning, lighting, power and ICT devices, and it also considers the associated external and internal environments: looking at the weather outside, the indoor air quality, such as the carbon-dioxide levels, humidity and temperature, and the geometry of the building.  Through detailed data processing it generates relevant information and recommendations, and then presents this advice in ways that are tailored for the various audiences.


Pilot Projects

Four pilot projects are being carried out as part of the HIT2GAP Project. These are in Spain, France, Ireland and Poland. For more information regarding the HIT2GAP demonstration buildings, contact Juliusz Zach, Mostostal.


  • Establish reference (base year) energy performance.
  • Gather data from energy bills related to the base year.
  • Compare the designed (simulated) and real energy performance of each pilot.
  • Survey user preferences.


The following results have been obtained for Nanogune site:

  • Forecasting of general electricity, general gas and chiller consumption with average error between 2 and 10%
  • Alert during abnormal warm season using fault detection (PCA) module
  • Simplified interface for visualizing energy saving using energy management module
  • Comparison of simulated and measured consumption using gap reasoner

The Spanish pilot study is focused on a building in San Sebastian containing offices and laboratories.

The building has photovoltaic (PV) panels and a BMS which controls the lighting and HVAC system.

This 6200 square-meter building, completed in 2009, is used to fabricate nanscale materials and to characterise their properties with high sensitivity.  It provides an indoor environment which is free from electromagnetic interference with an ultra low level of vibration.  The building includes a large clean-room (300 square metres) in which air purity is closely monitored.  It also includes an electron microscopy laboratory, nano-optics laboratories, nano-bio facilities and advanced equipment for nano-fabrication and characterisation.

Giroa are responsible for this demonstration.


The following results have been obtained for Challenger site:

  • Forecasting of electrical, lighting, ventilation and plug load consumption for South Triangle with average error between 12 and 35%
  • 9 out of 36 relevant alerts using fault detection module (PCA)
  • Low supply air temperatures on one air handling unit using fault detection module (ML)
  • Conforming indoor conditions using behaviour modelling (semantic)
  • Some overconsumptions during non-working hours using behaviour modelling (event driven)
  • Simplified interface for synthesizing building energy data and alerts using energy management module
  • Simulated model to identify comfort discrepancies (When calibrated) using ESP-r module
  • 250 PV panels out of service detected using Rensim module
  • Evaluation of COP performance using FM visualization module
  • Simplified and user-friendly interface for occupants.

The Challenger building is situated at the headquarters of Bouygues Construction located in Saint Quentin en Yvelines near Versailles in France and is one of the demonstration sites of the HIT2GAP project.  The site comprises 3 main office buildings with a total area of 68,000 m2, it has achieved triple certification: LEED, BREEAM and HQE and contains a large set of renewable energy technologies including 24,515 m2 of photovoltaic and dual solar panels as well as ground source heat pumps connected to geothermal wet and dry probes.

The BMS operates lighting, HAVAC, hot and cold water and technical alarms in the building.  Using the BMS, data on electrical and heat consumption are collected from sensors at regular time intervals.  Data is then made available for analysis by storing readings in an SQL database.  Several of the BEMServer core modules have been deployed at the Challenger building, including FDD-PCA (UdG), FDD-ML (FISE), BM-Events (Apintech), BM-ML (EGE), EnMS (Enerit), ESP-r (UoS), REnSim (Cyric), EM Visualisation (FISE) and the Building Occupants Module (Inoxia).

Bouygues Energies & Services are the project partners responsible for this pilot study.


The following results have been obtained for Wilanow site:

  • Successful connection of the demo building with the BEMServer through the Plat One and sharing data from the sensors installed at the site
  • Implementation of four selected modules
  • Forecasting of electricity and heating consumption for the third floor with average error between 7 and 20% which helps to investigate the possible deviation (overconsumption) by comparing the prediction with the real values
  • Satisfying alerts using fault detection ([CA) module after narrowing down the area of interest.  Correct detection of failure work of the chiller that serves AHU (NW1)
  • Simplified interface for aggregating bill data and comparing energy performance from several years using energy management module
  • Creation of the 3D model of Wilanow Town Hall and implementation of the BIM module showing alerts on temperature, CO2  humidity levels and presenting the historical data from the sensor on the user friendly 3D model.

The demonstration building in Poland is located in Warsaw and is a public building which also contains offices.

There are no renewable technologies in this building. The BMS controls lighting and HVAC.

This 12406 square-metre building, completed in 2014 is a 4-storey public building containing offices and an underground car park.

Mostostal are the contacts for this demonstration.


The following results have been obtained for NUIG siste:

  • Successful creation of a database including 364 variables, for more than 12 months, fully interoperable with the BEMServer platform
  • Real time, stable and reliable connection between amazon cloud server, where the pilot site BMS stores all the measured data, and the BEMServer platform: a complete set of 364 variables was made available on the HIT2Gap platform and the comprehensive and reliable communication flow was set and verified
  • Part of this large amount of measured data was made available as open access data on the scientific platform Zenodo: 2 sets of data were selected as significant for further research investigations, specifically about a complete monitoring layout of one of the AHU and about 2 selected energy meters, involved in the Hit2Gap test
  • AHU malfunctioning captured and faults detected in reliable and precise way: they represent significant faults for the pilot site and in general typical faults that can happen in an AHU and to their sensors and components
  • Achievable saving in electrical and thermal energy for AHUs of 25-65%
  • Real time connection between BIM model and BMS of the building, so real time values from the installed data-points can be visualized in the 3-dimensional BIM environment
  • Measured values outside acceptable comfort and operation ranges can be easily visualized in the BIM model with different colours, for fast and easy detection
  • All the following functions successfully integrated in BIM environment thanks to the ZUTEC toll: 3-demensional virtual visualization of building and systems components, architectural and MEP parts of the BIM model both involved, real time visualization of the measured data from the BMS, technical information, documents, photos and other information materials directly accessible and integrated, snags list and asset lists for AHUs and other components in order to check needed actions and features of buildings zones, components and systems parts
  • Forecasting of demand of thermal energy for heating and electrical energy for cooling (for chillers) with average error between 0.7 and 16%
  • A module to build in easy way energy models of building zones for simplified dynamic simulation, thanks to the MODSCO tool
  • Comparison of simulated and actual performance of air handling units using MODSCO module
  • An easy access to a comprehensive and powerful energy dynamic simulation engine for buildings and to access to capabilities of IEQ analysis and report according to international standard, thanks to ESPr module, made available in the BEMServer platorm
  • Automatic calibration of energy simulation models according to measured data from the BMS and improvements actions assessed thanks to energy dynamic simulation of automatic calibrated models

The Irish pilot study is focused on a building in Galway containing offices, lecture theatres and laboratories.

The building has a Climate wall with top-vented stack control and solar control via blinds, lighting systems and a  BMS which controls the HVAC system.

This 14250 square-metre building is a 4-storey engineering teaching and research building which was completed in 2011.  It includes 400 classrooms, some large lecture theatres and 25 breakout zones.  The building has rainwater harvesting, a biomass boiler, grass roofs and a variety of other green technologies.

Cylon Controls are responsible for this demonstration.

Renovation of Challenger building near Paris

Alice Perry building in Galway